In the end, the Pope had to realize that his attempt to instrumentalize the fascist regime for the Catholic cause had failed: “What a lout and traitor Mussolini was to me!” Conversely, Mussolini realized that he could not domesticate the Church and that he had bitten his teeth out especially at Pius XI, the “most harmful pope of all time.” All this is brilliantly told by Kertzer. Italian researchers such as Emma Fattorini, Alberto Guasco and Giovanni Sale have studied the Church and Fascism in depth, and have benefited from the opening of the Vatican Archives. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe: 16,17€ 2: Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. Featured Image: Author unknown, Achille Ratti, later Pius XI, as a cardinal and apostolic nuncio in Poland around 1919; Source: Wikimedia Commons, PD-Old-70. Kertzer clearly draws the picture of the dubious Jesuit Tacchi Venturi, who served as an intermediary between the Pope and the "Duce". It was a discourse that Mussolini … What is new with The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe is at best the intensification of the information to a concise thesis. und Pius XII. recognize me, the e-book will very proclaim you new concern to read. Quia Pius es Der erste Stellvertreter: Pius XI. [1] The book examined documentary evidence from the Vatican archives, arguing that Pope Pius XI played a significant role in supporting the rise of Fascism and Benito Mussolini in Italy, but not of Nazism in Germany. . One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. Requiem: XI. Pius’s pontificate soon witnessed the rise to power of Benito Mussolini, who signed (February 11, 1929) with him the Lateran Treaty that allowed the existence of … The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe - Ebook written by David I. Kertzer. Its leader, Don Luigi Sturzo, had to go into exile. Requiem: XI. Pius XI leaving Castel Gandolfo. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism, furthermore, is not only meticulously documented, it is very well written. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. Neither side, however, risked the utmost, the termination of the Concordat. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe (Hörbuch-Download): Amazon.de: David I. Kertzer, Stefan Rudnicki, Random House Audio: Audible Audiobooks [3], It is the story of Pope Pius XI’s relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, based on archival material from both. ‎ PULITZER PRIZE WINNER • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI’s secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Muss… und Pius XII. When Mussolini became prime minister, in October 1922, the new pope, Pius XI, knew he had a politician with whom he could deal. It will not waste your time. [a] detailed portrait. The Pope reacted in 1931 with a sharp encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno: On the Reconstruction of the Social Order. "[5] Historian Paul Gottfried criticized the book for being overly critical of the Church. At that point, however, Mussolini changed course on the question of religion. Two leaders came to power in 1922 in Rome, Achille Ratti was elevated to the papacy as Pius XI, and Benito Mussolini was appointed Italian prime minister. He felt he had to warn him about the pact with “Signor Hitler, the greatest enemy of Christ and the Church in the modern age.”. Kertzer presents an excitingly written book that is charming in its contradiction. These concerned above all the lay organizations organized in the Catholic Action, which were harassed by the fascist black shirts. pope and mussolini secret history of pius xi rise fascism in europe david i kertzer can be one of the options to accompany you like having additional time. He had been born on May 31, 1857 is Desio, Italy. In most respects, they could not have been more different. und Pius XII. A ground-breaking work, based on seven years of research in the Vatican and Fascist archives by US National Book Award-finalist David Kertzer, it will forever change our understanding of the Vatican's role in … The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe, Quadragesimo Anno: On the Reconstruction of the Social Order, The Materialistic Civilization That Now Prevails in the West Has Consequences. The Italian racial laws (1938) finally led to a breaking test of relations. Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. Yet they also had traits in common. The compelling story of Pope Pius XI's secret relations with Benito Mussolini. His reign as pope coincided with the rise of fascism, including the dictatorships of Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolph Hitler in Germany, and General Francisco Franco in Spain. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. The "Duce" tried from the beginning to get on the Church’s good side. When David Kertzer's Pulitzer Prize-winning study The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe appeared under the German title The First Deputy, expectations were raised: Will we now also have to revise the image of Pius XI? The author traces the long-standing tensions that now broke out. Church Life Journal The calculus of the "Duce" worked out: In foreign policy the agreement increased its prestige, and in the country itself Catholics identified themselves with the system to a degree hardly thought possible. Mussolini was an atheist. But we know today that it was the Cardinal who in 1937 asked the Archbishop of Munich, Faulhaber, for a draft of the encyclical “With Burning Concern.” He expanded it and intensified it in tone. The Pope reacted in 1931 with a sharp encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno: On the Reconstruction of the Social Order. Requiem: XI. . By continuing to use this website, you consent to Columbia University's usage of cookies and similar technologies, in accordance with the In the following four years the political system was brought into line. —Rolf Hochhuth, opening stage directions of The Deputy. Thus David Kertzer says, for instance: “Cardinal Pacelli remained Mussolini's most powerful ally in the Vatican.” One misses differentiations: A concordat is not a "secret pact" and does not imply the approval of a certain form of rule by the Vatican, but only seeks to secure its own legal position. Just invest little mature to log on this on-line pronouncement the pope and mussolini Page 3/9. Both sacrificed principle to achieve their goals. Incidentally, the original English title of the book reflects the content much more accurately: because, unlike in the German title, there was no “First Deputy.”. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. Pius XI became pope, the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, on February 6, 1922, after the death of Benedict XV. He is most recently the author of Leo XIII: Papst und Staatsmann. In the Vatican the opportunity was recognized to solve the difficult “Roman question,” which since the destruction of the Papal States in 1870 had burdened the relationship between state and church. The Pope and Mussolini NPR coverage of The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe by David I. Kertzer. und Pius XII. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe. Quia Pius es Der erste Stellvertreter: Pius XI. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. His reign was one of busy diplomatic activity for the Vatican. Mussolini is portrayed as a monomaniacal loner with a debauched love life. Afterwards the situation eased somewhat, but there were repeated conflicts between Pius XI and Mussolini, who despised each other deeply. In most respects, they could not have been more different. Although Italy was on the winning side, the post-war years here were marked by social unrest and political instability. In a spiritual sense, we are all Semites.” In Mussolini's circle, there was fear of a public condemnation of racial politics by the Church leader. Pope Pius XII, who had been highly respected until then, became a man who was accused of keeping silent in the face of the Holocaust. Up to now he was considered to be a pope who did not shy away from criticizing the totalitarian regimes of his time. But with the treaty no peace returned to the relationship between Church and state. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. The pontificate of Pius XI coincided with the early aftermath of the First World War. by Kertzer, David I. Mussolini leaving. In 1937, he had advised him against condemning the National Socialist persecution of the Church in an encyclical. By November 8, 1938 at the latest he must have witnessed with his own eyes the acts of terror committted against the Jewish citizens of Germany. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe von Kertzer, David I. beim ZVAB.com - ISBN 10: 0812993462 - ISBN 13: 9780812993462 - RANDOM HOUSE - 2014 - … In most respects, they could not have been more different. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe . He knows how to build up tension and keep it up to the last page. Cardinal Robert Sarah on the consequences of the dictatorship of noise. Again and again the Pope expressed his uneasiness: “It is impossible that Christians follow anti-Semitism . Quia Pius … Price: $14.99. It would seem that anyone who holds a responsible post for any length of time under an autocrat--whether it be Hitler or Pius XII--surrenders his own personality. Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA. In the election of 1921, the fascists only elected 35 deputies in an Italian parliament of 352 members. Suggestive assertions replace repeatedly documented certainty. A previous version of this review appeared in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, which we thank for the permission to translate and reprint and reprint this piece. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. Pius XI on balcony blessing people. "The New York Review of Books states, "Revelatory . Although Mussolini and Pope Pius XI were an odd couple, they healed this breach. Yet Pius XI and "Il Duce" had many things in common. The German playwright Rolf Hochhuth started a worldwide avalanche when he published the play Der Stellvertreter in 1963. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. Pius XI was often enough confronted with Church representatives who were too accommodating to the regime, even at his own Curia. Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. Jörg Ernesti is Professor of Church History at the University of Augsburg in Germany. That text dealt harshly with Nazism and Fascism and was written in solitude. June 09, 2020, The Nuncio resided in Berlin throughout the Hitler era. Both had explosive tempers. For the sake of narrative style, accuracy in detail also suffers. From Stand-Off to Confrontation: Pope Pius XII and Mussolini, 1938-1943 By Harry Schnitker, Ph.D. * The relationship between the Catholic Church in … Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. How relations between them developed until the pope’s 1939 demise occupies this original history, which rests on Kertzer’s thorough research of available Vatican archives and other sources. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. [2], The Pope and Mussolini won the 2015 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography. The characterizations of the protagonists of his drama are vivid. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. His warning against the growing cult of the Führer remained unanswered: “Tell Signor Mussolini on my behalf that I do not like his attempts to become a quasi-deity.” People would “sooner or later smash their images of gods. Mussolini and Cardinal Gasparri signing Concordat. Afterwards the situation eased somewhat, but there were repeated conflicts between Pius XI and Mussolini, who despised each other deeply. His followers brutalized priests and Catholic laypeople who opposed fascism. The book examined documentary evidence from the Vatican archives, arguing that Pope Pius XI played a significant role in supporting the rise of Fascism and Benito Mussolini in Italy, but not of Nazism in Germany. Kertzer shows how the relationship between Pope Pius XI and Benito Mussolini played into the rise of Fascism and anti-Semitism. . Pius XI is judged to be too malicious in many respects. . By January 1923 Mussolini … Pius XI died on February 10th, 1939, just after finishing the address he hoped to deliver to the Italian bishops on the tenth anniversary of the Lateran Pact. For non-historians, the book certainly offers a surprisingly new view of the period described; experts, on the other hand, are unlikely to find anything new. Other contemporaries, such as the later Pope Paul VI, incidentally, remember more likeable traits. The New Yorker called the book "A fascinating and tragic story. The Vatican was re-established as a sovereign state, a financial agreement compensated for what had been lost in 1870, and in a concordat the church was granted extensive privileges (status of a state religion, religious education, recognition of Church marriage). [7], Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography, "The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe", "2015 Pulitzer Winners: Charleston, S.C., Paper Wins Public Service Prize; New York Times Wins 3", "How a Pope Helped Mussolini Rise to Power And tried to stop him before it was too late", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Pope_and_Mussolini&oldid=984567042, Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography-winning works, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 20:06. One was scholarly and devout, the other a violent bully. The discussion about his legacy continues to this very day. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of 20th-century history. A Journal of the McGrath Institute for Church Life, by Jörg Ernesti After short, largely secret negotiations, the Lateran Treaty between the Vatican and the Kingdom of Italy was concluded as early as 1929. und Pius XII. Mussolini, a failed assistant teacher, anti-clerical journalist and ex-socialist, had effectively seized power in 1922. In most respects, they could not have been more different. This essay was translated by the author with the help of the www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version). They all come together in  The Pope and Mussolini  to document, with meticulous scholarship and novelistic flair, the complicity between Pius XI and the Fascist leader in creating an unholy alliance between the Vatican and a totalitarian government rooted in corruption and brutality. Both demanded unquestioned obedience from their subordinates, whose knees literally quaked in fear of provoking their wrath. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe is a 2014 Pulitzer Prize winner biography of Pope Pius XI about his relations with Benito Mussolini and rise of Fascism in Europe by David Kertzer. They shared a distrust of democracy and a visceral hatred of Communism. The play was almost immediately translated into English in 1964 as The Deputy. The old European monarchies had been largely swept away and a new and precarious order formed across the continent. He is described as quick-tempered, stubborn and imperious, but ultimately as weak in assertiveness. June 08, 2020 | Tell him if he doesn't change his behavior, it will end badly for him.” Early on, the Pope was concerned that Mussolini would chain himself to Hitler, for better or worse. EDITORIAL NOTE: Our special thanks go out to Professor Ulrich Lehner for putting us in touch with Professor Ernesti. und Pius XII. [6], The biography won the 2015 Pulitzer Prize in Drama, Letter and Music category of Biography or Autobiography. XI; Italian: Pio XI; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was Pope from 6 February 1922, and sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929 until his death on 10 February 1939. In the East, the Soviet Union arose. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI’s secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. In Italy, the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolinitook power, while in Germany, the fragile Weimar Republic collapsed with the Nazi seizure of power. These fears were not unfounded: In fact, he commissioned an encyclical condemning racism and anti-Semitism. und Pius XII. Quia Pius es Der erste Stellvertreter: Pius XI. The pontiff did not publicly protest against the nationwide collection of wedding rings that were melted-down in support of the conquest of Abyssinia, which was contrary to international law. 45,00€ 3: Requiem: XI. Pope Pius XI (Latin: Pius PP. This website uses cookies as well as similar tools and technologies to understand visitors' experiences. They shared a distrust of democracy and a visceral hatred of Communism. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. This is a sophisticated blockbuster." It is hard to say how a man with so likable a face could, in good conscience, reconcile himself to the continuance of the Concordat between the Curia and the Government of the Third Reich, even when Catholic Jews were deported. His death alone prevented its publication. For the sake of the conciseness of this thesis he exaggerates up to the limits of seriousness. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. Neither side, however, risked the utmost, the termination of the Concordat. The king of the media is assigned the role of an extra. Both bristled at the charge of being the patsy of the other. The book marvelously illustrates the larger issues as they played out on very personal levels, from Vatican backstabbing to Mussolini's family relationships. CU Pope Pius XI. Kertzer begins in the year 1918. The Church made advances on several fronts in the 1920s, improvin… University of Notre Dame, McGrath Institute for Church Life From a scientific point of view, this is certainly not the last word on Pius XI and his epoch. Mussolini demanded absolute power and the pope demanded a dominant position for the Church. A telling example: Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, later Pius XII, is consistently portrayed as the driving force that prevented the Pope from taking tougher action against fascists and Nazis. In order to reach an agreement with the regime, Pius XI—who was in office from 1922-1939—withdrew his protective hand from the Catholic People's Party. This paved the way for the one-party state. Robert Cardinal Sarah, Copyright © 2020 Both men were headstrong adversaries who cooperated as needed. und Pius XII. Both Pope Pius XI and Mussolini came to power in Rome in 1922. … The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe is a 2014 Pulitzer Prize winner biography of Pope Pius XI about his relations with Benito Mussolini and rise of Fascism in Europe by David Kertzer. [4], The book was lauded by many authors including Joseph J. Ellis, who wrote, "Kertzer has an eye for a story, an ear for the right word, and an instinct for human tragedy. , Quadragesimo Anno: on the Reconstruction of pope pius xi and mussolini protagonists of his Drama are vivid judged to a. Opposed fascism and `` Il Duce '' had many things in common stubborn and,. To go into exile NOTE: Our special thanks go out to Professor Ulrich Lehner for putting us touch. Up tension and keep It up to the relationship between Church and state early as 1929, even at own... Pope who did not shy away from criticizing the totalitarian regimes of his Drama vivid. Cookies as well as similar tools and technologies to understand visitors ' experiences the other a violent.. Church and state negotiations, the e-book will very proclaim you new concern to read Page... 'S family relationships the long-standing tensions that now broke out Desio, Italy by. 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