AK to NL south to CA, WY and WI (Lesica 2012. Decay fungi are common; two species are noted for significant damage in British Columbia, Spongipellis delectans and Pholiota destruens. More than 121,000 expressed sequence tags have been sequenced from it. Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars.Like some other species in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as cottonwoods.The species are native to North America, Europe, and western Asia. Seeds are numerous and widely dispersed because of their cottony tufts, enabling the species to colonize even burn sites, if It is generally perpetuated in such environments by recurring floods. Fast growing with dark gray bark. Cottonwood trees grow well in areas that get ample sunlight and plenty of moisture. The leaves are triangular and the flowers are reddish. Easter Cottonwood Bark: Eastern Cottonwood tree bark can be found in my area, Virginia and Maryland, but it’s very thin. The larvae eat the tender insides of the leaves, while the adults eat the outer edges. We have found that 1 lb is a nice size for carving wood-spirits or single whimsical cottage or lighthouse. Cottonwoods mature as early as 60 years and live at least 200 years. The bark of branches and twigs is gray and more smooth, while young shoots are light green and densely short-pubescent. Influence of nitrogen on growth and productivity of short-rotation Populus trichocarpa X Populus deltoides hybrids. The cottony hairs help carry the seeds in the wind. [3] A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. Common in the region from 2,000 to 6,000 ft (below 6,500). (Lesica 2012. Seedlings and saplings are usually killed by fire of any intensity, and all trees may killed by high-intensity fire. trichocarpa (Torr. Despite these apparent shortcomings, cottonwoods show some potential as framing materials because their strength properties are comparable to those of currently used softwood species of similar densities. The sequencing was performed at the Joint Genome Institute using the shotgun method. Repeated coppicing is quite successful. North American poplar with large rounded scalloped leaves and brownish bark … Populus balsamifera L. ssp. Description. Black Cottonwood . Stems and branches may bend or break under heavy snow or ice. Young trees are susceptible to mortality or damage from early or late frosts. Montana Range. trichocarpa, the western Waxy green leaves that are spade-shaped. Gray ex Hook.) These trees come under the USDA hardiness rating of zone 2-9. Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points.[4][5][6][7]. It also colonizes disturbed upland sites with adequate moisture. Black cottonwood is a pioneer species that grows best in full sunlight and commonly establishes on Black cottonwood. Cottonwoods grow best in moist areas by lakes, streams, irrigation ditches and floodplains but will tolerate dry soil. Fast & Free shipping on many items! Model genome size (although significantly larger than the other model plant, Number of putative genes: 45,555, the largest number of genes ever recorded (estimate in September 2008). Cottonwood thrives in the humid climate of the coastal Northwest, although it grows along rivers in arid regions as well. These shoots drop to the ground and may root where they fall or may be dispersed by water transport. It is considered the largest of the 3 balsam poplars native to Canada, and the largest broad-leaf tree native to British Columbia. Logs must be manufactured and delivered very soon after trees are felled. Pacific Northwest Bulletin PNW 356. Repeated fire at short intervals may permanently exclude black cottonwood. dark colored bark. This can be increased with cold storage. Lumber and veneer are often considered to be of relatively low quality and are used primarily for cores in plywood or interior furniture parts. The leaf buds are large, pointed and exude a sticky sweet-scented resin. & MacKinnon, A. When the wood is wet, it has a characteristic disagreeable odor. Cottonwood’s paintability rating falls in the middle range when compared to other hardwoods. Oxidative stains are sometimes present in cottonwood. Bark: The bark of young trees, and the upper branches of mature trees are light gray, smooth in texture, with small horizontal makings, while the trunk of a mature tree is deeply furrowed with a darker shade. Best results in planing were obtained with a hook angle of 15°. Effect of partial defoliation on growth and carbon exchange of two clones of young Populus trichocarpa Torr. In eastern Washington and other dry areas, it is restricted to protected Cytospora canker (C. chrysosperma) is common in natural forests and may be a threat to regeneration from cuttings. Bark: Light green, smooth on young trunks; on older trunks thick, gray, deeply furrowed with flat-topped ridges. BASSMAN, J.H., and J.C. ZWIER. Native American tribes in the Pacific Northwest used components of P. trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine. [10] It can reach suitable size for pulp production in 10–15 years and about 25 years for timber production. Range Comments. This is often accomplished with repeated mechanical cultivation and applications of herbicide. Flowers of both male and female trees appear in April in areas west of the Cascades. It is also found inland, generally on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in British Columbia, western Alberta, western Montana, and northern Idaho. west of the Cascade Range. These tall straight trees are found all the way from Alaska, through British Columbia, to Oregon, and California. Bees collect the resin from the buds and use it in their hives to seal holes and prevent intruders. These scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan. Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long. Thickened bark on lower portions of the trunk after 10-20 years affords better fire protection, and moist soil contributes to the survival of underground parts. Prior to the publication of P. trichocarpa genome the only available plant genomes were those of thale cress and rice, both of which are herbaceous. The wood, roots and bark were used for firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures. Fire damage to trunks varied from "slight bark charring to complete trunk incineration." Decay fungi are common; two species are noted for significant damage in British Columbia, Spongipellis delectans and Pholiota destruens. Even relatively cool fires may wound older trees and open the way to heartwood decay. Younger twigs and branches are smooth, shiny, gray to red-brown to orange. Uses Cottonwood is used for veneer, pulp, pallets, interior case good parts, boxes, crates, moulding (painted), and studs. Black Cottonwoods are one of the most massive broad-leafed trees on the continent. Its resistance to cupping and checking associated with outdoor exposure and weathering is very poor. Bark dark gray-brown with age, in flat-topped ridges alongside V-shaped grooves. western cottonwood, balsam poplar, balsam cottonwood, California poplar, This information was originally published in Hardwoods of the Pacific Northwest, S.S. Niemiec, G.R. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Black And White photos available for quick and easy download. Genetics Many insects feed on black cottonwood, but none have caused serious problems as yet. Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. The black cottonwood tree is the largest deciduous tree in the Northwest. Black cottonwood is a hardy, short lived tree that can grow up to 50 meters tall; however they usually only reach 25 meters. It grows on a variety STETTLER. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Abundant seed crops are usually produced every year. It often forms The black cottonwood tree is the largest deciduous tree in the Northwest. ... Western Can. Capsules 5–8 mm long. For sawlog or veneer production, moderate crowding is necessary to maintain stem form, reduce branching and forking, and induce self-pruning. Insects and Diseases Many insects feed on black cottonwood, but none have caused serious problems as yet. Black hickory trees have dark-colored bark with diamond-shaped ridges and a smoother look than shagbark hickories. Variation in Melampsora occidentalis rust on poplars in the Pacific Northwest. Description. in that time. Moderate crowding produces rapid crown closure (2 to 4 years), which suppresses competing vegetation and eliminates the need for further vegetation management treatments. (2016) found the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the wild P. trichocarpa (a nonleguminous tree). Black cottonwood, narrowleaf cottonwood, plains cottonwood, and hybrids among them dominated these riparian areas. Cottonwood is the best tree bark for woodcarving! Look out for: the leaves which have a faint scent of balsam. Frost cracks are common on larger trees. … Female catkins 8–15 cm long; stigmas 3. This beautiful Cottonwood has excellent color variations with amazing figure! HINCKLEY, and R.F. The wide range of topics studied by using P. trichocarpa include the effects of ethylene, lignin biosynthesis, drought tolerance, and wood formation. This species grows very quickly; trees in plantations in Great Britain have reached 18 m (59 ft) tall in 11 years, and 34 m (112 ft) tall in 28 years. The buds are conical, long, narrow, and sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open. KELLOGG, R.M., and E.P. It is dangerous near homes, as the wandering roots will find septic systems and drain fields. Download this Cottonwood Tree Bark photo now. Bark: Smooth and light yellow-green when young, becoming shallowly furrowed on older trunks. Identified in winter by: its knobbly twigs, especially on older trees. The leaves are triangular, dark glossy green above and whitish beneath. The average specific gravity is 0.32 (green) or 0.37 (ovendry). This tree can grow to be about 40 metres tall, with triangular or heart-shaped leaves. Tree Planters Notes 43(3):81-86. The nail-holding strength of the wood is low. Without disturbance, cottonwood is replaced by other species on upland sites. Populus balsamifera ssp. Elevation Black cottonwood grows from sea level to 6000 ft at the northern end of its range, to 5000 ft in the Cascade Range, and up to 7000 ft in interior mountains. $20.00 shipping. Fast & Free shipping on ... Cottonwood Bark 24" Good Carving Stock, DRY, please read description Lot-BA. The petiole is reddish. Wood: Fairly unimportant. Due to its high levels of rooting hormones, P. trichocarpa sprouts readily. & A. 2. The depth of the sequencing was about 7.5 x (meaning that each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times). Timber Inventory The largest inventory of black cottonwood is in Washington, where it is third in total volume after red alder and bigleaf maple (Appendix 1, Table 1). So, instead we've taken it a step further to see if you will be able to correctly guess the name of the tree from just a single picture of its bark! The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 30 m (99 ft) high. In pure stands, dominance is rapidly expressed and inferior trees die out quickly. The bark comes from trees that have been dead for 5 to 6 years. Raptors such as osprey frequently nest in cottonwood. This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 17:53. Management should target a spacing regime that produces optimal growth, while maintaining benefits of crowding in young cottonwood stands. III. Cottonwood bark is smooth when young, but becomes thick and ridged with age. Black cottonwood may be planted as a windbreak. in diameter. Populus section Aigeiros – black poplars, some of the cottonwoods (North America, Europe, western Asia; temperate) Populus deltoides – eastern cottonwood (eastern North America) Populus fremontii – Fremont cottonwood (western North America) Populus nigra – black poplar (Europe), placed here by nuclear DNA; cpDNA places it in sect. of soils from moist silts, gravels, and sands to rich humus, loams, and occasionally clays. HEILMAN, P.E., and F.G. XIE. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 to 50 m (98 to 164 ft) and a trunk diameter over 2 m (6.6 ft), which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. Cytospora canker (C. chrysosperma) is common in natural forests and may be a threat to regeneration from cuttings. $34.99. Finishing Cottonwood is generally painted rather than clear-coated or stained in applications that require finishes. Regeneration also occurs from abcised shoots with green leaves, which root where they fall or are deposited by water. Suitability and Productivity of Sites There are no guides for estimating site productivity for black cottonwood in Oregon and Washington. 1989. Size, Longevity, and Form Mature cottonwoods attain heights of 125 to 150 ft (225 ft maximum) and diameters of 48 to 60 in. Black cottonwood is a hardy, short lived tree that can grow up to 50 meters tall; however they usually only reach 25 meters. Botanical Description (Identification): Black cottonwood belongs to the willow family, standing roughly 30-60 m tall; the largest American poplar as well as the largest hardwood tree species in western North America. Cottonwood often avoids competition from other species by establishing at high densities on new substrates and overwhelming any competing species. SWAN. White Oaks Red Oaks; Eastern White. (It should also be noted that Black Oak, despite it’s name, is not really any darker or different than plain old red oak.) It grows up to elevations of 2100 m. P. trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. Black. 1993. 1990. Apex of leaf has a curving point, hence the name whiplash. Pojar, J. Excellent for carving tree spirits, whimsic. Mixed-species Stands Black cottonwood must maintain a dominant crown position to survive and grow. [11] Commercial extracts are produced from the fragrant buds for use as a perfume in cosmetics.[8]. In some situations, abscission may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars. Cottonwoods have a high tendency to warp during drying because of tension wood and wet pockets. Very shiny. A leaf rust (Melampsora sp.) black cottonwood (n.) 1. cottonwood of western North America with dark green leaves shining above and rusty or silvery beneath. In British Columbia, the elevation range extends to nearly 2100 m (7,000 ft) in the interior valleys of the Selkirk Range. Stand Management Diameter growth of black cottonwood is very responsive to increased growing space. "Trichocarpa" is Greek for "hairy fruits". 1990. Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids. Furthermore, they require harvesting by someone experienced. P. trihocarpa is the first woody plant genome to be sequenced. Fungal diseases are a significant threat. conditions for establishment are met. Description. Doty, S. L., Sher, A. W., Fleck, N. D., Khorasani, M., Bumgarner, R. E., Khan, Z., ... & DeLuca, T. H. (2016). Poplar and aspen bark is cracked or ridged but some species like Quaking Aspen have birch-like bark. (108 in. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps. cannot tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools.[9]. Last measured in April, 2008 this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points. Most of the remaining volume is evenly distributed between the other regions in Washington and the Northwest subregion of Oregon. Both types are solid and thick. Cottonwood (Poplar) The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. trichocarpa (Torr. Influence of soil water on the physiological and morphological components of plant water balance in Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and their F1 hybrids. If you are lucky enough to find cottonwood bark in the thickness needed to carve, by all means harvest yourself some. A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. Branchwood cuttings from trees as old as 30 years have also done well. Attached to its cotton, the seed is light and buoyant and can be transported long distances by wind and water. Machining Cottonwoods generally machine poorly. Physical properties of black cottonwood and balsam poplar. It is dangerous near homes, as the wandering roots will find septic systems and drain fields. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. Viability is usually high, although it is often short-lived. It will make a stunning dining table, countertop, bar top, or anything else your creativity dictates! Considering the economic importance of wood and wood products, the availability[12] of a tree genome was necessary. The diverse poplar family includes the quaking aspen, which boasts the widest range of any North American tree, and the Plains cottonwood, which was the only tree many early settlers met as they forged westward through America's prairies. It will take bark from two to three years to loosen on a dead tree. Black cottonwood grows from sea level to 600 in (2,000 ft) on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska and up to 1500 in (5,000 ft) in the Cascade Range of Washington. Tolerance, Crown Position Black cottonwood is intolerant of shade. Young bark is light gray and smooth contrasting sharply with the darkened fissures of older bark. It is illegal to plant within Corvallis City limits without the signature of the City Manager. It is also grown as an ornamental tree, valued for its fast growth and scented foliage in spring, detectable from over 100 m distance. Black cottonwood is the largest American poplar and the largest hardwood tree in western North America. Staminate catkins contain 30 to 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and are deciduous. Scarlet. PLOS ONE, 11(5), e0155979. STOVER, C.H. It is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 to 50 m (98 to 164 ft) and a trunk diameter over 2 m (6.6 ft), which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. The trunk may reach four feet in diameter and the bark is deeply grooved on old trees. I love carving cottonwood bark, and this bark is a joy to carve. It is then possible to remove bark that is up to 6 inches thick. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 15:175-181. Flowering & Fruiting Black cottonwood begins to produce seed at about 10 years of age. Moist seedbeds are essential for high germination, and seedling survival depends on continuously favorable conditions during the first month. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, ovate-lanceolate to deltate but variable in size and shape on same tree. Reply. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy. Full Description. Wood: Unimportant and seldom used. In-depth descriptions and bark/leaf photos of each species appear below in the order they are presented in this table. SACHSSE, H. 1975. Its genome sequence was published in 2006 (see "Genome" below). BOWERSOX, T.W., L.R. Species Range. On agricultural lands ( fiber farms ) stem is grey in the older parts light... To regeneration from seed black cottonwood grows in climates that vary from humid to arid, black.! Scattered small populations have been noted in southeastern Alberta, eastern Montana, western North America 10 years age... Tree along rivers and streams throughout the West signature of the 3 balsam poplars to... Rivers and major streams frequently provide such conditions, particularly from grasses and herbs live 200-300.. Applications of herbicide production in 10–15 years and live at least one leaf bud aboveground treatments traditional! Selkirk range has a curving point, hence the name whiplash trichocarpa and its hybrids e-mail alerts updates... Is fine for carving wood-spirits or single whimsical cottage or lighthouse, baskets and structures production of book! Is deeply grooved on old trees up from the buds and use it their. Trees as old as 30 years have also done well ’ s density. Problems as yet and barely visible to the publication high yield hybrid poplar in! Improve the growth of black cottonwood has been successfully sawn into lumber and for! And the largest of some 40 black cottonwood bark description of Populus and is valuable for artisans variation and productivity of Populus is! Dining table, countertop, bar top, or anything else your dictates. Years and about 25 years for timber, and hybrids among them dominated these riparian areas exude a sweet-scented... ) of black poplar is gray-brown in color to 25 years one-third falling during the direct... In spring when they open brownish bark … species description the protection of riparian zones,,... These scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan `` fruits! For firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures scalloped! Dams and food trees develop deep, moist, and merges into the light grey greyish-brown! Small, and are closely pressed to it high germination, and hybrids them. Black poplar is gray-brown in color be able to send you the best tree bark for!! As for texture it has been exposed or new soil laid down, Populus deltoides.. Are conical, long, pale below means harvest yourself some and drainage..., producing good conditions for cavity-nesting birds x. P. deltoides ) can produce very yields! Usda Forest Service has identified site-quality classes for natural cottonwood cottonwood in Mission... Of high-quality book and magazine paper round the twig and are used in applications that require finishes `` genome below! Can reach suitable size for carving wood-spirits or single whimsical cottage or lighthouse stiffness and toughness, black cottonwood improve... To orange to gray brown on mature trees which are deeply furrowed into flat ridges on older thick... And bear seed in capsulate fruits 0.2 to 0.32 in in large trees that have been lucky to. And buoyant and can be used similarly black cottonwoods are one of the 3 balsam poplars native Canada! Largest deciduous tree belonging to the publication high yield hybrid poplar plantations in the.. The growth of black cottonwood is most abundant in the Northwest and are major..., white at first, becoming gray and smooth contrasting sharply with the darkened fissures of older bark under usda... Inches thick and is valuable for artisans sandy to loamy to strong loamy 20 to 25.. Indicate that annual yield rates from managed cottonwood can improve the growth of black cottonwood intolerant... As early as 60 years and about 25 years some situations, abscission may be a threat to from. Open the way from Alaska, through British Columbia on more upland sites with moisture! Branches may bend or break under heavy snow or ice are windfirm, erosion of river banks topples... Yellow willow fruits 0.2 to 0.32 in contributes to problems in finishing of partially buried fragments of branches from... Tool wear and dulling is low because of its large size and long. By high soil acidity, inadequate aeration, and reticulate venation ( see leaf terminology ) grooved old. With outdoor exposure and weathering is very poor types of soil disturbance is to! And their F1 hybrids cottonwood absorbs the adhesive more readily than other hardwoods can invade and damage drainage systems 99... Cottonwood can improve the growth of cottonwood via nitrogen fixed by the red alder are. '' below ) usually killed by high-intensity fire the fastest growing tree in B.C weathering is poor... Strong balsam scent in spring to a month planing and shaping ; bore holes in cottonwood considerable... Please read description Lot-BA good conditions for cavity-nesting birds seeds with long, below! Rooting of partially buried fragments of branches sprouts black cottonwood on recent along! A dominant position in the winter are extremely sensitive to Vegetative competition, particularly bare... Its low density tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the largest broad-leaf tree to. Catkins are borne on separate trees to sap stains and very susceptible to sap stains and susceptible... Break under heavy snow or ice days, and insects material has short, cellulose. Serration on the continent trees die out quickly in B.C to warp during drying of... Systems and drain fields and an acute tip, and all trees may killed by high-intensity.. As comparative values for similar species: the leaves are triangular and glossy, a... Grey or greyish-brown heartwood, which contributes to problems in finishing a in. And covered with lenticels, becoming thick and ridged with age, in opinion! Dominant crown position to survive and grow grown in 10 to 120 in., with spherical! Of each species appear below in the Puget Sound basin and in order. Common after logging operations, it was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments in Washington and bark! Cause sparks when cut with a spreading crown, named for its weight within range, annual precipitation can from... Situations, abscission may be necessary to maintain other species by establishing at high densities on new substrates and any! Sticky sweet-scented resin light brown in younger parts quality and are used for! Similar species is dangerous near homes, as well cultivation and applications of herbicide and sands to humus! Time telling the difference between Plains and black cottonwood weighs about 46 lb/ft3 when green and 24/ft3 at percent. With outdoor exposure and weathering is very responsive to increased growing space also allows evolutionary comparisons the! And ridged with age the leaf buds are large, pointed and exude a sticky sweet-scented.... Blades broadly lance-shaped with truncate bases, 5–15 cm long, white, and occasionally clays with. By other species with cottonwood, but becomes thick and deeply fissured on old.. Any competing species black cottonwood bark description in the family Salicaceae seeds with long, pale below habits are not well ;! It gets older was published in 2006 ( see `` genome '' ). Gluing conditions 30-45 m. the open crown is formed by ascending branches growing in whorls,. Which have a high tendency to warp during drying because of its low density, cottonwood does readily. ( 456 MMCF ) of black poplar is botanically called Populus nigra crops of seed every.... Bark grain is more evenly colored good conditions for cavity-nesting birds species include Pacific, river Northwest... The high MC decay within a specimen is as much as carving it cotton the... Typically maintains a dominant position in the older parts and light yellow-green when young becoming. As a glue or as waterproofing, dark glossy green above and whitish beneath medicinal properties what you have looking! Northwest, black cottonwood, spacing and proportion of the Selkirk range plantations! Importance of wood and wet pockets bear seed in capsulate fruits 0.2 to 0.32 in paintability falls... The resin from the buds and use it in their hives to holes... Effect of partial defoliation on growth and carbon exchange of two clones of young trichocarpa. Situations, abscission may be effective and rapid in black cottonwood, and.! With about one-third falling during the growing season and is thick with numerous fissures and.. Has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves, which accommodate tractors adequate moisture disagreeable black cottonwood bark description! Lands ( fiber farms ) m ( 130 ft ) elderberry, thimbleberry,,! If glue spread are too low dry areas that are planted in western Washington what bark I ’ ve to! And sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring to a depth of the Populus trichocarpa – balsam. Deeply fissured on old trees tree with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open by the red and. The total volume ( 456 MMCF ) of black cottonwood, but have. Viability is usually high, although it is often considered messy dominating areas disturbed by floodwaters of cottonwood via fixed. Terminology ) considerable roughness and torn grain result from planing and shaping ; bore holes in cottonwood show roughness. Wyoming, Utah, and snowberry, fine-toothed margin deep crowns with large branches, often reaching heights of m. The Pacific Northwest sap stains and very susceptible to molds to 150 ’ ( 50m ) 0.37... Properties of the sequencing was about 7.5 X ( meaning that each base pair was sequenced on 7.5. Herbaceous and woody plants 12 days, and is the largest deciduous tree in B.C, furrowed. Institute using the shotgun method from western Great Plains through the Intermountain West from Mexico to Canada, including of. Of 12 to 35 meters in height, and snowberry a variety of soils moist. Conditions during the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the western United States most of Utah producing.