Jonah did not care about the outstandingly ethical behavior of the sailors nor the impressively penitent Ninevites. Hebrew Meaning: The name Jonah is a Hebrew baby name. . 3-11; reprinted in Angel, Through an Opaque Lens (New York: Sephardic Publication Foundation, 2006), pp. When Jonah finally does speak in the text, the narrator divides the prophet’s words between a direct quotation and narrative: “I am a Hebrew!  For further analysis of the interrelationship between Joel, Jonah, and Exodus 34, see Thomas B. Dozeman, “Inner Biblical Interpretation of Y-H-W-H’s Gracious and Compassionate Character,” JBL 108 (1989), pp. It seems that Rashi has the smoothest reading: They who cling to empty folly: those who worship idols; forsake their own welfare: their fear of God, from whom all kindness emanates. Not only was Nineveh known for its wickedness, but it was also the capital of the Assyrian empire, one of Israel's fiercest enemies. SWEEPING CHANGES ARE EXPECTED AFTER MARCH . Jonah is used chiefly in the English, French, Scandinavian, and Spanish languages, and its origin is Hebrew. The story of Jonah is simple. Jonah found God's order unbearable. Published in the Chicago Daily News (1) The philanthropist. She replied, The person who sins, only he shall die (Ezek. He replied, let him repent and gain atonement. See more. DICTIONARY ; THESAURUS ; GRAMMAR . Though not a compelling peshat comment, Abarbanel’s insight is conceptually illuminating regarding the overall purpose of chapter 1. Rabbi Marc D. Angel answers your questions on our YouTube channel! 6-7. When Jonah stopped outside the city to rest, God provided a vine to shelter him from the hot sun. He doesn’t do what God wants him to do, sailing away in a different direction. However, the Book of Jonah portrays Nineveh as a typological Sodom-like city-state, not as the historical capital of Assyria. 140,304,902 stock photos online. He had influenced others for the better and had attained a deeper level of understanding of God and of his own place in this world. He is the author "Hope for Hurting Singles: A Christian Guide to Overcoming Life's Challenges. 66-68. However, you also were willing to die rather than face heat. Jonah was unwilling to accept God’s mercy even to the most ethically perfected pagans because that manifestation of mercy was antithetical to Jonah’s desired conception of God. Morgan's Charges . How, then, can you expect to understand God’s attributes? Rob Barrett (“Meaning More than They Say: The Conflict between Y-H-W-H and Jonah,” JSOT 37:2 (2012), p. 244) suggests additional ironies in Jonah’s prayer: Jonah proclaims that he has called out to God (2:3), but in fact has refused to call out to Nineveh or to God while on the boat. The Talmud ascribes the composition of the Twelve Prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly (Bava Batra 15a). God added a surprising variable when explaining His sparing of the Ninevites. Sanhedrin 11:5, Pesahim 87b, cited by Rashi, Kara, Ibn Ezra, and Radak. The decisions students make about social and political issues are often influenced by what they hear, see, and read in the news. Jesus did not consider the book of Jonah to be a fable or myth. However, there is no indication of repentance in Jonah’s prayer. Perhaps the god will be kind to us and we will not perish” (1:6)—while Jonah sounds like the inattentive audience a prophet typically must rebuke. Jonah, Hosea, Amos, and Micah were eighth century prophets; Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, and Obadiah prophesied in the seventh-early sixth century; and Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi prophesied in the late sixth century. Yonah (Hebrew) is an original form of Jonah. However, the Book of Jonah portrays Nineveh as a typological Sodom-like city-state, not as the historical capital of Assyria. Aside from downplaying the role of the sailors in chapter 1, Uriel Simon sidesteps Jonah’s prayer by contending that it was not an original part of the story. It was asked of God: what is the punishment for a sinner? Up, call upon your god! In the belly of the whale, Jonah repented and cried out to God in prayer. He replied, let him repent and gain atonement. In his introduction, pp. 3-4, Ben-Menahem adds that chapter 1 is arranged chiastically and Jonah’s proclamation in v. 9 lies at the center of that structure, further highlighting its centrality to the chapter. Remarkably, the captain sounds like a prophet when addressing Jonah— “How can you be sleeping so soundly! This video is unavailable. It's always wise to obey the One who loves you most. Although Jonah told the sailors what they wanted to know, that his flight from God had caused the storm, it is the narrator who relates those crucial words rather than placing them into Jonah’s direct speech. Supporters are featured on our online Scroll of Honor. View. Together they span a period of some 250-300 years. The title character- a sailor and a skinny, gormless, chinless wonder- was feared by all other mariners because he would (accidentally) sink every ship he sailed on (and often all other vessels in the neighbourhood to boot). For this reason, it is important for them to learn about the techniques used to convey political messages and attitudes. /n'Old Reliable!' Abarbanel and Malbim (on 4:1-2) suggest that Jonah was outraged that God spared the Ninevites after their repentance for social crimes, since they remained pagans. Jonah’s spiritual attainments were obviously far superior to those of the sailors or the people of Nineveh – he most certainly could tell his right hand from his left.  Midrash Jonah, ed. Reproduction of original drawing. WORD ORIGINS ; LANGUAGE QUESTIONS ; WORD LISTS; SPANISH DICTIONARY; More. The Book of Jonah, usually called Jonah, is a book of the Old Testament of the Bible. 14:25 is a genuine predictive prophecy, this would place his ministry in the first half of the eighth century BC before the victories of Jeroboam II (786-746 BC). Afterwards it ceases all broadcasting because of the outbreak of World War II . 4:2), Jonah substituted “renouncing punishment (, God added a surprising variable when explaining His sparing of the Ninevites. IA Clear Track! The term “Ivri (Hebrew)” often is used when contrasting Israelites with non-Israelites. Jonah told them to throw him overboard. View. Enlarge. Outraged by God’s sparing of Nineveh, Jonah revealed that he had fled initially because he knew that God would not punish the Ninevites. “I worship the Lord, the God of Heaven, who made both sea and land.” The men were greatly terrified, and they asked him, “What have you done?” And when the men learned that he was fleeing from the service of the Lord – for so he told them . March 1938. For I know that You are a compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in kindness, renouncing punishment. In specific the book gives an account of Jonah's refusal of God's command for Jonah to travel to the the capital of Assyria, Nin,eveh and prophesy its destruction to the people. Rather than obey God’s directive, Jonah elected to martyr himself on behalf of his people. 163-172. Who knows but that God may turn and relent? (Exod. He went down to the seaport of Joppa and booked passage on a ship to Tarshish, heading directly away from Nineveh. But in the end, he learned a valuable lesson about the Lord's mercy and forgiveness, which extends beyond Jonah and Israel to all people who repent and believe. Why would the narrator frame Jonah’s statement this way? The captain even uses the same words in 1:6 (kum kera) that God had in commanding Jonah to go to Nineveh in 1:2 (kum lekh…u-kera). What does Jonah mean? She replied, The person who sins, only he shall die (Ezek. 148-161. 4:2). Jonah was callous to the lives of the Ninevites—he wanted to see them destroyed. March 14, 1938. Jonah was in the giant fish three days. . The people on the boat throw Jonah into the sea to stop it. Bearing an agreement signed by Adolf Hitler, he addressed the assembled crowd to ensure them that he had secured “peace for our time.” Ever since this statement has stood as the ultimate expression of the naivety of the policy of appeasement: the … March 1938. Although this approach is more comprehensive than the earlier interpretations, it remains incomplete. Jonah definition, a Minor Prophet who, for his impiety, was thrown overboard from his ship and swallowed by a large fish, remaining in its belly for three days before being cast up onto the shore unharmed. WORD ORIGINS ; LANGUAGE QUESTIONS ; WORD LISTS; … It is unlikely that Jonah would have violated God’s commandment for the reasons given by these midrashim. Perhaps Israel would be inspired to repent in light of Nineveh’s repentance.  For fuller exploration of this and related disparities, see Hayyim Angel, “The Uncertainty Principle of Repentance in the Books of Jonah and Joel,” in Angel, Revealed Texts, Hidden Meanings: Finding the Religious Significance in Tanakh (Jersey City, NJ: Ktav-Sephardic Publication Foundation, 2009), pp. To paraphrase the prayer in chapter 2, Jonah was saying “Ivri anokhi [I am a Hebrew]” (1:9)! . Jonah was a British comic strip series, published in the magazine The Beano, drawn by Ken Reid.It first appeared in issue 817, dated 15 March 1958. A whale swallows him. He prayed to the Lord, saying, “O Lord! He expresses his belief that white racists used programs under the New Deal, like the NRA, to further discriminate against low wage black labor.  Finally, most prophets appear to have accepted the ideas of repentance and God’s mercy.  This chapter is adapted from Hayyim Angel, “‘I am a Hebrew!’: Jonah’s Conflict with God’s Mercy Toward Even the Most Worthy of Pagans,” Jewish Bible Quarterly 34:1 (2006), pp. Nineveh’s repentance might amaze the reader, but it did not impress Jonah. After some time, the whale vomits him out, and Jonah does what God wants him to do. Jonah spent the same amount of time—three days—inside the whale as. That is why I fled beforehand to Tarshish. What follows are ten of his most distinctive cartoons of the era. Sign up below for our newsletters and receive a pdf of Conversations, Issue 12: Reclaiming Orthodox Judaism, The Talmud ascribes the composition of the Twelve Prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly (. Download this stock image: NEW DEAL CARTOON, 1938. They were superior people—the sailors all along, and the Ninevites after their repentance—but Jonah despised them because they were pagans. R. Samson Raphael Hirsch suggests that during the entire episode, Jonah needed to learn important lessons in becoming a prophet. Jonah’s stark silence at the end of the book reflects the gulf between God and himself. The Ninevites, on the other hand, effected one of the greatest repentance movements in biblical history. Moreover, Jonah’s statement that he was a Hebrew who worshipped the true God appears tangential to the terrified sailors’ concerns. Ibn Ezra on 1:1). For fuller exploration of this and related disparities, see Hayyim Angel. 15-17. This political cartoon was published in a black Chicago newspaper, the Chicago Defender, on January 27, 1934, during the first term of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency. There is a further challenge in being absolutely committed to God, while still respecting moral people who espouse different beliefs. One midrashic line suggests that unrepentant Israel would look bad by comparison were non-Israelites to repent. Isn’t this just what I said when I was still in my own country? Why should Jonah alone have fled from his mission? . A midrash places one final line in Jonah’s mouth: “Conduct Your world according to the attribute of mercy!” This midrash pinpoints the humbling lesson Jonah should have learned from this remarkable episode, and that every reader must learn. Perhaps the god will be kind to us and we will not perish” (1:6)—while Jonah sounds like the inattentive audience a prophet typically must rebuke. Jonah substituted “renouncing punishment (ve-niham al ha-ra’ah)” for “faithfulness (ve-emet).” Jonah’s God of truth would not spare pagans, yet God Himself had charged Jonah with a mission to save pagans! He remained an “Ivri” to the very end. The point of the story is that God can provide a supernatural means of rescue when his people are in trouble. Although it had seemed from chapter 3 that the Ninevites had saved themselves with their repentance, God suddenly offered a different reason: Then the Lord said: “You cared about the plant, which you did not work for and which you did not grow, which appeared overnight and perished overnight. However, you also were willing to die rather than face heat. Some scholars believe the Ninevites paid attention to Jonah because of his bizarre appearance. Franklin D. Roosevelt & New Deal Political Cartoons “A Clear Track” by Hungerford March 14, 1933, Newark ... February 18, 1936, Kansas City Star “‘Jonah’” March 9, 1938, Mansfield, Ohio News Journal . Jonah thought he knew better than God. You can also review our Article Title or Author index. Pronounce Jonah [ 2 syll. The Book of Jonah is a book of the Nevi'im ("Prophets") in the Hebrew Bible. Jonah emphatically contrasted himself with the pagan sailors; however, the narrator instead has contrasted Jonah with God. God commanded the whale, and it vomited the reluctant prophet onto dry land. Download 66 Jonah Cartoon Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! This article by Rabbi Hayyim Angel originally appeared in his book, Vision from the Prophets and Counsel from the Elders: A Survey of Nevi’im and Ketuvim (New York: OU Press, 2013), pp. Throughout the Despite his passionate commitment to God, Jonah needed to learn to appreciate moral people and to bring them guidance. 7-9. This time Jonah obeyed God. Abarbanel and Malbim, however, do not think that Jonah would allude to the sailors. From this point of view, there is a fundamental struggle between God on the one hand and wisdom and prophecy on the other. What are synonyms for Jonah? 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