For this reason, many people prefer to use some type of woolly aphid treatment to care of these pests. This is best done in spring or early summer before an extensive population has built up. tb1234. Trees were planted in 2008 on an M9 rootstock at an 8 × 14 ft spacing. In this trial, the efficacy of a conventional standard organophosphate is compared with an OMRI-approved insecticide for WAA control. Varieties were planted in rows and only ‘Jonagold’ were used for this experiment. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Search for other works by this author on: © The Author(s) 2018. Much like other types of aphids, these sap-sucking insect pests are small (1/4 inch). Impact of woolly apple aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the growth of potted apple trees. The three main methods of control for Woolly aphids are organic sprays, systemic chemical sprays and natural predators. The woolly apple aphid may occur on the above-ground portions or roots of the apple tree. Besides apples, other hosts include pear, hawthorn, mountain ash and elm. A few species appear waxy or woolly due to the secretion of a waxy white or gray substance over their body surface. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research Extension Center,, Wenatchee, WA. ... Two applications of chlorpyrifos also afforded good suppression of the aphid. Aphids were assessed by counting the number of live aphids per colony. Generally, their numbers are kept low with natural predators like lacewings, ladybugs, hover flies, and parasitic wasps. The pretreatment count on 28 Sep was used as a blocking factor in the design. 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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, Evaluation of Best Use Practices for Spear-T in Season-Long Control Programs for Spotted-Wing Drosophila Adults in Georgia Blueberries, 2020, Evaluations of Insecticide Performance for Control of Pecan Weevil and Hickory Shuckworm, 2019, Evaluations of Insecticide Performance for Control of Alfalfa Weevil and Aphids, 2020, Efficacy of Soil and Foliar Applied Registered and Experimental Materials on Green Peach Aphid and Tobacco Flea Beetle, Cranberry Toad Bug Control on Cranberries, 2016–2017, About the Entomological Society of America, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. Most species have a pair of tubelike structures called cornicles projecting backward out of the hind end of their body. In addition, plants may become covered with sooty mold, an unsightly black fungus that resembles soot. During the summer months, the move- Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies with long legs and antennae and may be green, yellow, brown, red, or black depending on the species and the plants they feed on. 1. They can be seen feeding on foliage, buds, twigs and branches, bark, and even the roots. Although physical control might be sufficient a little chemical help does not go amiss. Trial results confirm that the rate of Samurai required to control Woolly Apple Aphid is related to tree canopy volume, which does not differ significantly between larger, single trees in a low density orchard and smaller, ... to take the chemical into the root zone. High volume spraying is likely to be more effective as the spray has to penetrate the protective … Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum, WAA) is native to eastern North America but now occurs on apple throughout the world.Young WAA nymphs have purple bodies covered with powdery gray wax. Aphelinus mali is a parasite that can completely control aerial colonies. Aphid forms inhabiting above-ground parts of the apple tree are most common in mid-summer and fall. You can also prune out and destroy infested branches when feasible. Although aphid abundance decreased in the two Venerate treatments at 7 DAT, they were not statistically different from the check. DEFRA/AHDB summarise current methods for chemical treatment of orchards for this pest. Flowering plants in or on borders of orchards provide nectar and pollen to maintain and attract natural enemies. The current lack of effective insecticides has created a need to test new materials, especially for organic growers. Infested nursery stock is also a source for spreading aphids. 255-273. These pests generally use two hosts: one for overwintering and laying eggs in spring, and one for feeding in summer. The basis of control is to cut out severely infected woody branches and scrub the bark clean. The following guidelines help prevent a buildup of aphids, and reduce the population … In addition, entomopathogenic nematodes have been used to control root-dwelling populations of E. lanigerum. When chemical control is deemed necessary, woolly aphid insecticide such as acephate (Orthene) can be used to control these pests. Biological control of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), during transition to integrated fruit production for pipfruit in Central Otago, New Zealand. Journal of Economic Entomology 81(4) 1170-1177. In the absence of … ISSN : 0302-7074. Larger nymphs and adults have long white wax filaments emanating from their bodies' posterior. Description: Adult aphids are approximately 1.5 mm long and … Though this does not normally affect or damage the plant itself, getting rid of the aphids and their honeydew will help control the sooty mold. Add a few other ingredients to this woolly aphids treatment to make the solution stronger if you have a bad infestation. Non-pesticide control. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Control. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated using Tukey’s HSD (α = 0.05). Each experimental plot consisted of a single tree with three tagged WAA colonies, and plots were spaced at least one tree apart to provide a buffer. There are few insecticides specifically labeled for control of woolly apple aphid. Remove trash and weeds from application zone before application. There are several aphid control products on the market that are commonly available as either a liquid concentrate or ready-to-use spray. Eriosoma lanigerum. Woolly Apple Aphid Natural History • Hosts include plantain, apple, hawthorn, mountain ash, cotoneaster, elm ... • No chemical control for underground infestations • For aerial colonies, monitor rootsuckers and pruning cuts between petal fall and 1. st. cover PI(s): Bergh, J Christopher (Project Leader) Abstract: The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, is a cosmopolitan pest of apple. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(4):1170-1177; 27 ref. Carbaryl, if used for apple thinning, is also a very effective leafhopper material but the canopy spray technique may not provide adequate coverage for leafhopper control. (1988). Some apple varieties, such as Northern Spy, are resistant to this pest. Where populations are high, infestations can cause formation of galls on branches which reduce tree vigour especially in young orchards and also can also be a The aerial colonies can be found in several locations o… Biological control of woolly apple aphid. Woolly apple aphid: effective chemical management. Orchard management impacts woolly apple aphid populations. However, woolly aphids, which are green or blue, also appear fuzzy due to the white, waxy material that covers their body. 3. PREVENTING WOOLLY APHIDS IN APPLE TREES There are two main actions you can take to reduce the likelihood of a woolly aphid attack. Elm trees in the vicinity of orchards increase the migration of the aphid to apple trees. A hover fly larva feeding on woolly apple aphids. Spirotetramat (Movento) is a tetramic acid registered for the control of a number of indirect pests in pome fruits and stone fruits, primarily aphids (including woolly apple aphid), mealybugs, pear psylla, and San Jose scale. Wax accumulation is sometimes seen as well, along with the sweet, sticky residue known as honeydew. The most resistant, commonly available rootstock is MM106. Successful control depends on efficient wetting and good distribution of spray. Record Number : 19951110929 ... chemical control chemical control Subject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment Chemical control. Treatments were applied to the point of drip on 2 Oct using a backpack sprayer, and aphid densities were evaluated at 2 and 7 DAT. This aphid, native to North America, was identified in the United States in 1842. Although woolly aphid populations rarely get large enough to harm most plants, the distorted and curled leaves they cause and leave behind can certainly become unsightly. Additional Details. You can also prune out and destroy infested … A high volume spray of an approved insecticide should be applied in spring or early summer as soon as potentially damaging infestations are detected. Some clonal stocks including M9 and M26 are quite prone to attack and may host large overwintering colonies, so they are … The insects feed on roots, trunks, limbs and shoots, producing galls at the site of the infestation. Host plants. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Order Hemiptera, Family Aphididae; aphids or plant lice Native pest Host plants: Apple is preferred, but elm, hawthorn, mountainash, and pear are also susceptible. Generally, their numbers are kept low with natural predators like lacewings, ladybugs, hover flies, and parasitic wasps. Woolly Apple Aphid Management. Most important natural enemies include Aphelinus mali (Haldemann), lacewing larvae, lady beetles and syrphid fly larvae. When using these chemical products, take precautions to minimize human, pet, and environmental exposure, as well as … Once started, these galls increase in size from year to year as a result of aphid feeding. Pirimicarb used to be the most commonly used insecticide for apple aphid control, but has now been withdrawn. This research was supported by industry gifts of pesticide and research funding. Galls f… The host plants include apple, pear, Prunus spp, crab apple, Pyracantha, Cotoneaster, elm, hawthorn and mountain ash. Since severe woolly aphid attacks rarely occur, there is little need for woolly aphid pesticide for control. Figure 3. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Soap is a natural bug killer for plants since the solution kills insects without killing the plants. Woolly apple aphid Woolly apple aphid has proven to be one of the most difficult of the aphid pests to control … The first is to buy apple trees on rootstocks which are resistant to woolly aphid attack. Attacks of woolly aphid tend to be sporadic and it is important to watch for sign of infestation moving onto young shoots in June (see‘Monitoring’) and treat only when necessary. Injury caused by the woolly apple aphid consists of gall-like formations and swollen enlargements on roots and shoots. Full text. The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Erisoma lanigerum has historically been considered an occasional apple pest in Ontario, but is now seen more frequently in orchards. 2. Woolly apple aphid control: Upward and downward migration of aphid throughout trees reduced in preliminary experiments with chemical compounds Funding for this project was provided in part by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the B.C. Encourage aphid predators in the garden. Ministry of Agriculture through programs delivered by the Investment Agriculture Foundation of B.C. Spirotetramat (Movento) is a tetramic acid registered for the control of a number of indirect pests in pome fruits and stone fruits, primarily aphids (including woolly apple aphid), mealybugs, pear psylla, and San Jose scale. Four insecticide treatments and an untreated check were evaluated with four replications in an RCB design. There is no guarantee that you will catch all the aphid and prevent its return but if you remove potential re-infection it will be relatively easy to manage next year. This may be due to recent restrictions on certain organophosphates, which were highly toxic to WAA relative to available alternatives. A soil wetting agent was added to each chemical to improve soil saturation and penetration. For more details on biological control of woolly apple aphid see biological & integrated control of woolly aple aphid. S. R. Quarrell, R. Corkrey, G. R. Allen, Predictive thresholds for forecasting the compatibility of Forficula auricularia and Aphelinus mali as biological control agents against woolly apple aphid in apple orchards, BioControl, 10.1007/s10526-017-9792-1, 62, 2, (243-256), (2017). The average number of aphids per colony was significantly lower at 2 and 7 DAT for both Diazinon and Oil compared with the check (Table 1). It is now distributed throughout the apple growing regions of the world where its importance as a pest varies. In this trial, the efficacy of a conventional standard organophosphate is compared with an OMRI-approved insecticide for WAA control. Woolly Aphid Control. Weber DC, Brown MW, 1988. Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P≤0.05). This research was conducted in an apple block composed of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Golden’, ‘Granny Smith’) at the Tree Fruit Research Extension Center Sunrise Farm near Rock Island, WA. Woolly aphids appear in early autumn the woolly coating covers the insects and the white coating is usually the first sign of infection. Adrian T Marshall, Elizabeth H Beers, Chemical Control of Woolly Apple Aphid, 2017, Arthropod Management Tests, Volume 43, Issue 1, 2018, tsy026, https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/tsy026. Damage may be recognized by twisted and curled leaves, yellowing foliage, poor plant growth, branch dieback, or the development of cankers and gall on limbs or roots. If desired, you can spot treat where the aphids are most abundant using insecticidal soap or neem oil. Treatments for woolly apple aphid are recommended when 10% of the pruning scars are infested with live colonies. Areopraon lepelleyi is another species of wasp which is a parasitoid of the woolly apple aphid. In organic orchards, and orchards minimizing use of broad-spectrum insecticides, control woolly apple aphids by natural enemies. Types of Aphid Control Pesticides. Woolly Apple Aphid Control upward and downward migration of aphid throughout trees reduced in preliminary experiments with chemical compounds Harold F. Madsen and Stanley C. Hoyt Continual movement of the woolly apple aphid throughout the tree is one of the major difficulties in its control. Woolly aphid insects generally feed in groups. If desired, you can spot treat where the aphids are most abundant using insecticidal soap or neem oil. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Weber, D.C. & Brown, M.W. Pest description and crop damage Adult woolly apple aphids are reddish to purple and are completely covered with a thick, woolly white wax. Here is how to kill woolly aphids using a little bit of dish soap and water. Sign up for our newsletter. Bionomics and control of woolly apple aphid … Woolly Apple Aphid Control in Orchards Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) is on the increase in a number of orchards and becoming a serious pest particularly in young orchards. Impact of woolly aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the growth of potted apple trees. Research from Washington State showed Movento provided satisfactory summer control of woolly apple aphid. Yu JiangNan, Chen WeiMin, Xu Yi, Liu XiaoLing, 2008. Control. The problem can be largely avoided by purchasing trees grown on woolly aphid resistant stocks – ask your supplier when choosing trees. Since severe woolly aphid attacks rarely occur, there is little need for woolly aphid pesticide for control. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! Chemical characteristics of normal, woolly apple aphid-damaged, and mechanically damaged twigs of six apple cultivars: Red Fuji, Golden Delicious, Qinguan, Zhaojin108, Starkrimson, and Red General, were examined in autumn wood to provide a better understanding of factors related to cultivar resistance to the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). This research was conducted in an apple block composed of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Golden’, ‘Granny Smith’) at the Tree Fruit Research Extension Center Sunrise Farm near Rock Island, WA. On small trees with light infestations, it is possible to control woolly aphid by scrubbing the aphid colonies with a stiff-bristled brush. Over the past decade, WAA densities have increased in Washington apple orchards. Lady beetles, lacewing larva and parasitic wasps are natural predators of the woolly apple aphid, but chemical control may be necessary when aphid populations are larger than natural enemies can control.